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This article presents the simulation of an IPv4 network connected to two IPv6 isles. Those protocols are not compatible; therefore, transition mechanisms were implemented to fulfill a fundamental role. Meanwhile, this reaches the total deployment of IPv6, such as: Tunneling and Address translation.

The first, encapsulates an IPv6 packet inside an IPv4 Header so that it can be moved through the network; the second, translates the address and the protocol of those packets crossing through it. To assess the performance of each technique when the data is sent, the changes with respect to memory consumption and router processing were analyzed. They established a range of over 4. However, they never imagined that internet would have an exponential growth, which produced a significant increase of the internet during the s; expanding rapidly through society, faster than telephones and faxes.

This made it necessary to create a new protocol cabeera IPv6 or also called new generation protocol, but if the change was from IPv4 to IPv6, what happened to IPv5?

The IPv6 protocol is designed to replace the IPv4 protocol; the principal characteristic the new protocol has is the expansion of address space, given that it has 2 IP addresses available, while its predecessor has 2 32that is, the IPv6 quadruples IPv4 in number of addresses [3]. Additionally, IPv6 includes greater efficiency in the delivery of packets, support for communication security, among others.

Bearing in mind that the current infrastructure was designed for IPv4 and not IPv6, mechanisms or methods are used that permit the compatibility of these two protocols so they can use the same infrastructure. Among these transition mechanisms, there are the Tunneling type and address translation mechanisms. The first transition technique is called Tunneling; this mechanism consists in sending IPv6 frames with an IPv4 header.

The tunnel ends are in charge of the header for the packet to use the IPv4 infrastructure. The second transition technique is known as address translations; this mechanism assigns transparent routes in the nodes of the IPv6 isles to communicate with the IPv4 networks and vice versa.

Currently, in Colombia the Renata company is the pioneer in implanting Cabefera and adopted the following address: Renata has configured over 70 higher education institutions, which send data through this protocol [4].

The development of this project encompasses transition mechanisms like: The development of this work considered the guidelines provided by the RFCs. The RFCs is a group of documents on the internet, these serve cabeecra specify, describe and aid in the implementation, standardization, and debate of norms; besides standards, protocols, and technologies related to the internet [5].

This transition mechanism provides a way of using the large existing IPv4 infrastructure to carry IPv6 traffic. To apply this cabecwra, it can be used in the following manner:. In this case, each end of the tunnel configures the destination and origin addresses for IPv6 and IPv4 [7]. When an IPv6 packet is sent through the tunnel, the address from the tunnel end is used to encapsulate the IPv4 header.

IPv4 header checksum – Wikipedia

Figure 2 shows the topology of a manual tunnel; in this case, Tunneling takes place from router to router R1 to R4. The R2 and R3 router s are only IPv4. The main parameters cabecsra are the tunnel input and output so IPv6 packets can travel. Figure 3 shows how a tunnel is created in R1 and R4.

Evaluation of the Performance of Techniques to Transmit IPv6 Data through IPv4 Networks

For the R4, the same logic is managed as in R1 to create the tunnel and, thus, communicate the two IPv6 isles. For this network topology, the R1 to R4 automatic tunnel is generated and vice versa Figure 4. The numerals contained by R1 are the necessary parameters to create the automatic tunnel Figure 5. The following explains each of the items. The 6 to 4 tunnel is a router to router tunnel form, which uses a The 6 to 4 Tunneling permits the IPv6 isles to communicate with other IPv6 isles with a minimum configuration.


An IPv6 isle will be assigned a global address with a This prefix has the same format as a normal prefix:: Cabecrra a 6 to 4 tunnel the tunnel end configuration is not necessary.

The IPv4 address of each end of the tunnel is determined upon extracting the total IPv6 prefix of the destination address of the IPv6 packet that will be sent through the network [8]. In the 6 to 4 cabecega topology, the tunnel is created in the R1 and R4 router s and vice versa. The cabwcera explains in cabecrra the 6 to 4 tunnel configuration in the R1 and R2 router sas shown in Figure 7. Then, the acbecera address is constructed, that is, The RFCs and describe the address and protocol translation.

Cabecera ipv4 pdf editor

The objective of this transition mechanism consists in providing transparent routes to the nodes in the networks or IPv6 isles to communicate them the nodes of IPv4 networks and vice versa. That is, it appears as a link gate between two networks; additionally, it is in charge of translating all the addresses and protocols of the packets passing through it cabecfra.

This technique requires at least an IPv4 available address for the IPv6 network seeking communication with IPv4 networks. It also uses a mapping table that contains the relationship of the IPv6 addresses and prefixes with the IPv4 addresses to provide a transparent route.

Figure 9 describes how the IPv6 and IPv4 origin and destination addresses are translated; for example, in R1 it is described, thus:. That is, when a packet reaches R1 with the This same procedure is carried out in R4 for the protocol and address translation and, thus IPv6 packets can travel through an IPv4 network.

A set of tests were designed to analyze the performance of the simulations implemented. For the memory tests, it must be remarked that free memory of the tunneling-type techniques, that is, the manual, automatic, and 6 to 4 tunnels was 69, Bytes; for the address translation technique the memory was 46, Bytes.

Stemming from these data, a relationship is made between memory used and free memory; likewise, a relationship is made in the percentage of CPU consumption used by the router to send data.

The following shows the 6 to 4 tunneling simulation latency behavior Figure Show the communication between PC1 and PC2. That is, communication and data delivery can occur between them. In case a packet is fragmented in the automatic, manual, or 6 to 4 tunnels, it will be noted thus in Wireshark. In this case, the packets will be fragmented as of bytes, given that 20 bytes are necessary for the IPv6 header, that is, dabecera MTU in the IPv6 tunnels on IPv4 is bytes. The previous figure shows that the IPv6 packet has been fragmented and the packets have been delivered from PC1 cabscera PC2.

When the IPv6 cabeecra is fragmented, the datagram fields remain in the following manner Figure Figure 21 illustrates the IPv4 header assigned in the router, in this case R1, the most relevant information is:.

When packet sent from PC1 to PC2 reaches the final router in this cxbecera R4 translates the IPv4 packet coming through the network into a IPv6 packet to be delivered to its destination. The GNS3 Emulator is a useful tool for the business environment because it reduces implementation costs, given that in GNS3 it is possible to experiment and test the different functionalities the Cisco IOS contain to avoid causing any damage in real devices. This emulator uses hardware resources no other simulator like Packet Tracer uses; both its graphic interface and its results assimilate real-life devices.

An aspect referring to the simulation was the application of the router to router transition mechanisms to the different topologies, given that the i nternet service providers ISPs are in charge of covering and providing adequate service to its users, depending on their needs because users are indifferent to the protocols and means used by their network to carry out tasks like making payments, sending e-mails, or browsing different web pages.


Due to this, we discarded the de host to host and host to router applications. The simulations carried out comply perfectly with the functions required to transmit Cabedera data through IPv4 networks.

The transition mechanisms were designed for the interaction of the two IPv6 and IPv4 protocols, while managing the total deployment or emigration to the IPv6 network that can take several years. The main reason to migrate to IPv6 is due to the depletion of IP addresses, this new protocol improves certain IPv4 parameters, like higher efficiency to cbecera data and support to communication security. The advantages offered by manual Tunneling and automatic Tunneling are that not many resources are consumed, and it is a transparent method at IPv6 level with which applications are not affected.

The setbacks of manual Tunneling are the manual configuration and not in dynamic manner cabscera the final nodes of Tunneling, given that to share information with other networks; the nodes must be previously configured for said networks. The advantages offered by the 6 to 4 Tunneling is that Tunneling is only established when necessary, Tunneling are dynamic and it is not necessary to configure them, each IPv6 network only needs an IPv4 global address; we can have up to 2 32 IPv6 networks.

The inconvenience presented by the 6 to 4 Tunneling is that to create a Tunneling only the The NAT-PT technique has fragmentation problems, which is a disadvantage when sending large packets, given that it needs the support of other techniques to carry out a correct fragmentation. Likewise, the translation process is more costly in the use of resources than the application of tunnels. For WAN networks, the maximum latency that can be worked with without problems is ms, after this time packets start getting lost.

In the Tunneling technique when the packet was too large bytes losses started to be produced and the packets were not totally delivered and their times exceeded ms. It is more effective to use dynamic iov4 Automatic tunnel and 6 to 4 to interconnect IPv6 isles through IPv4 than the manual Tunneling techniques, given that with a higher cabecwra of isles less final nodes need to be configured. The GNS3 program is an easy to install tool, it is open software and permits developing work in the business sector, given that it reduces the cost implementing the networks; it is also useful in the student sector because it is quite accessible to the study of networks, it also works jointly with Wireshark for packet capture.

Salinas, Interview, Protocolo IPv6: Presente y futuro de la internet.

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Services on Demand Article. English pdf Article in xml format Article references How to cite this article Automatic translation Send cabecega article by e-mail. RFCs, transition mechanisms, Tunneling, address translation.

Materials and methods The following programs are required: To apply this mechanism, it can be used in the following manner: The following specifies each of the types of tunnels: Tunnel configuration The main parameters required are the tunnel input and output so IPv6 packets can travel. The following explains the numerals contained in R1 Figure 3.

Tunnel configuration The numerals contained by R1 are the necessary parameters to create the automatic tunnel Figure 5. RFC 6 to 4 tunnel The 6 to 4 tunnel is a router to router tunnel form, which uses a cabecer Address translation The RFCs and describe the address and protocol translation.

Translation of the IPv6 header to IPv4: Mapping table configuration Figure 9 describes how the IPv6 and IPv4 origin and destination addresses are translated; for example, in R1 it is described, thus: Wireshark tests Table 1.

The previous figure shows the IPv4 header, highlighting the following information: The address of origin is the interface of the encapsulation node, which is address The following information is highlighted from Figure The address of origin is