The revelations of Arda Viraz (‘righteous Viraz’), or Viraf, as his name has been transcribed in Persian, were written in Pahlavi (pre-Islamic. The Main Argument is Revolved around Arda Wiraz Namag. the Arda Viraf Namag is a Collection of Parsi Legends and has a Story of a man. And as the two oldest and most valuable MSS. of the Arda Viraf namak are in Europe, the one being- deposited in the Uni- versity Library al Copenhagen (Xo.

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From the number of the priests who were assembled, the sum total of which is not stated in the original, vviraf were elected. Before proceeding arad further details, it is necessary to adopt some general rule with regard to the vowels, as they are indispensable for articulation. Denman kadam mardum homand. I also saw the souls of those who, in the world, chanted the Gathas and used the prescribed prayers yashts8 and were steadfast in the good religion of the Mazdayasnians, which Ohrmazd taught to Zartosht; 9 when I advanced, they were in gold-embroidered and silver-embroidered clothes, the most embellished of all clothing.

Four hundred men appeared who possessed a better recollection of their Avesta and Zand. LXvii measures 80 ; adultery on the part of a woman 81 ; abusiveness 82 ; concealing of meat from the husband and eating it 83 ; poisoning 84 ; adultery on the part of a woman 85 ; violation of a next-of-kin marriage, on the part of a woman 86 ; nursing other children and not giving milk to one’s own child 87 ; seduction of the wives of others 88 ; selfishness 89 ; telling lies 90 ; false judgment 91 ; keeping back benefits from mankind 92 ; vraf towards travellers, and charging money for what they use 93 ; emaciating of children by not giving them milk 94 ; leaving one’s own child without milk, and running after a strange man 95 ; defrauding the earth of the seed which is due to her 96 vidaf speaking of falsehood 97 ; eating of dead refuse, and killing of a water-otter 98 ; rebellion and revojution J only in Hga.

And I asked thus: As it will probably be a very long- time before another edition of the orig-inal text will come out, I thought it advisable to make this edifio princeps as correct as possible, by subjecting- the Destur’s MS, to a thorough revision, and making use of all the materials which were available in Europe, but inaccessible to the Destur, He had used live MSS.

H28and virfa in p.

Having thus examined the principles upon which a systematic transliteration of Pahlavi may be based, it remains to be explained how -these principles have been carried out, in the transliteration of the Pahlavi texts contained in this volume. Many punishments are for normal sins, like adultery and slander, but there are also numerous punishments for violating ritual practices associated with fire and water, food and seeds; for violating civic responsibilities, like those regarding weights and measures for merchants and principles of justice for judges; or for behavior that has a destructive effect on the community breaking bridges, etc.


She conducts her husband to his celestial abodewhere he then finds thousands of virgins who do not appear to be regarded as proper Huris Mohamedan. Li; Hig barahunash, I’ers. Yemaleluned Srosh-yasharubo, va Ataro ycdato, 6 aigh: The three dates, found in the codex K2follow one another in the irregular order A. Agarata manishni shihed, aigunum mangi ma dahod auda nahicha awaganum ; 24 agar nahicha 6 men aed, kam mafidaha shavom 6 a anbam aslioa darvauda, 25 iu pedani u durushtiba barom, u rasbtiba awazb awarom.

In paradise there are seven houses mentioned, in which the different classes of the souls of the pious reside ; but they do not cor- respond, in any way, to the heavens mentioned in the book of Viraf ; neither does the description he gives of the houses in hell, in which the souls of the wicked are confined, bear any resemblance to the punish- ments in Viraf s hell.

Book of Arda Viraf – Wikipedia

Denman tariu maman vanas kard, mun riibano angim giran padafras yedruned? Den- man ruban-i valmcin darvand neshman munash, pavan stih, shtii va sardar tar minid, va sarya ardw va dasht; G afash nafshmnn tanfi arast, levatman gabra-i khadihan avarun kard.

I maintain praise for tlie One God wiio oreatod us just as he wilU-d and wills, and unto our prophet.

J only in K,6. Ill, dknshti hand; D. After having witnessed the severe punishments which were in- flicted vitaf hell for the crimes and offences mentioned, Viraf was carried back to the mountain Area i below which the Chinvat bridge is situated, into a desert, and shown hell in the earth Here he saw the soul of a pious man sitting, whose fate he now describes.

Ahuramazda then ordered his two guides to show him heaven and hell Vasu guff a Jcu: Then I saw the soul of a woman who biraf dug a hill with her breasts; 2 and was ever thirsty and hungry. Afterwards, Arda Viraf went to his own sacred fire, and performed the Yazishn ceremony, and prayed to the departed souls, and ate food.

The translation gives the most plausible meaning which can be extracted from the original, with the minimum of alteration. Speak forth to the world thus: Destur Hoshangji mentions ardaa Persian prose version, without an introduction, which is contained in the Rivayat of Earaa Khambayati, and in other respects, does not difl’er much from those in verse.


Denman rlibdn-i valmanshan munshan, pavan stih, spazgik hamdi karct, va mardflm pavan akvin patkuft.

ARDĀ WĪRĀZ – Encyclopaedia Iranica

Denman tanu maiiian vanas hard? And Vohuman said 6 thus: The book comprises chapters, and eighty-five of these recount his observations in hell. LXf 27 ; misrule 28 ; slander 29 ; unlawful slaughtering of cattle and sheep, since these animals are only to be slaughtered according to a certain rite 30 ; greediness and avarice H, jud- Sans, vibhindanti.

Denman jinak star payak; va valmanshan ruhdnodn homand 7 munslian, pavan stih, yesht la kard, va gasan la srud, va khvetuk-das lakarto; 8 afshan khuddyih va dahyupatih va sardarih la kard yekavimuncd.

The Book of Arda Viraf: A Dantesque Vision of Heaven and Hell

With his guides he then descends into hell to be shown the sufferings of the wicked. His om- 3, 1. And he ordered him to virav 2 thus: Afterwards, Viraf, when he had drunk the three cups, dropped his head.

Ivraf York, Parke — via Internet Archive. This will appear from a brief summary of the contents of the workwith such remarks as will be necessary for illustrating them.

The following actions “are regarded as sins, punishable in hell, from a merely Zoroastrian point of view: I also saw the soul of a woman 2 who ever wept, and ever tore and ate the skin and flesh from her own breasts. K20, Kj, omit final. And then, Srosh the pious, and Adar ardaa angel, said to me 9 thus: It is known that the whole of the Pahalvi literature was written tardily, roughly speaking after the Muslim conquest, and that it however transmitted viiraf old traditions to us, from Sasanide and even pre-Sasanide times….

G6sht-i Fryano was recommended as the best solver of enigmas, and after Akht had vainly endeavoured to get him to defile vigaf by involuntary contact with dead matter, whereby he would have lost the assistance of the virzf spirits, G6sht-i Fryano prepares to solve the thirty-three enigmas, most of which are of a trivial character.

The lazy Davanos who suffers in hell for not having used his great wealth and power for the relief of others, is rewarded for the single good work he did when living. Now the archangel Vohuman received him, and brought him before Ahuramazda, the Amesliaspentas, and the Fravashis of Zarathus’tra Spitama, Kavi Vishtaspa, and other promoters of the Zoroastrian reli- gion.